Man's place in God's Creative “Timeline”
as described in Genesis is such a complex subject that it is
systematically avoided in a host of analyses. However, the more
complicated an issue is, the more majesty it hides for those who are
not discouraged from penetrating deeper into the sacred texts of the
In another article, we addressed this issue as a first approach. In
the present article,
we will provide the reader with some supplementary details on the
which is inextricably linked, not only to the Genesis description of
Creation, but also to many other matters such as eschatology,
cosmology, salvation, anthropology, Orthodox psychotherapy, and much
For the first outline, go to the article titled
"The Fall of the first-fashioned humans from God’s eternal “State of
Rest” - Our placement within the Creative “days”
The first 3 Paragraphs below are a brief reminder of the
contents of the aforementioned article.
1. The 7 “days” of Genesis and man
It is well-known that in Genesis, the Bible narrates how God had
fashioned “heaven and earth” (i.e., the material environment in which man
lives and moves) within 6 Creative “days”, and how these 6 “days”
were followed by a 7th “day”, “during which God ceased
from all His works.” It
is also known that man was created at the end of the 6th Creative
“day” - after the land animals (Genesis 1:27-36) - and how Adam,
after being created, was placed by God in the 7th "day" - aka
"Paradise". (Genesis 2).
2. Entering God’s Eternal State of Rest
But let us recall for the needs of this article exactly what God’s
“Eternal State of Rest” implies. (In Greek, it is the term êáôÜðáõóç, where ðáýóç
= pause, pronounced
kut-a-puff-see, and it implies the permanent pausing of God's Creative
opus; the term is also used for describing the state of blessedness,
and is also a term that relates to the Sabbatical "rest".)
Adam's exodus (his “fall”) was from God's êáôÜðáõóç,
which he was enjoying while he was “in the likeness of”; It was his
fall from the 7th Creative “day”.
are the 6th – 7th – 8th “days” related?
This is where we need to focus on the critical element of “Time” and
the association between the Creative “days”. If - after
sinning - Adam had “fallen” from the 7th Creative “day” (God’s êáôÜðáõóç),
in which “day” did he find himself?”
But before we explain this in more detail, it is necessary that we
show how these three “days” are related.
A. The “day” that never ended
It is of great importance to note that of the 7 Creative “days” mentioned
by Genesis, the only one that has not “ended” is the 7th!
Let's remember how all the preceding “days” of Creation, we read: “and evening
came, and morning came, and it was “day” so-and-so” (Genesis 1:5, 8,
13, 19, 23, 31). On the
for the 7th “day” (and more so for the 8th “day”
– the first “day” of New Creation), the verse of Zechariah
14: 6,7 states that BOTH these "days" are never-ending; that they
eternal, never-setting “days” of the Lord, where there will
be no need for illumination, and cold and ice...
The indirect reference of the verse to the Creative “days” of
Genesis is obvious. The verse purposely indicates
differentiation from the first six Creative “days” - which have an
“evening” and a “morning” - because it says: “...even
towards dusk there is light”. This is clearly the “day” of the
Lord and His saints, as seen in Zechariah 14:5:
“.....and the Lord my God and all the saints shall be with Him”.
These words pertain to both the 7th and the 8th
“day”, inasmuch as both of them do NOT have an end; that is, they
are “never-setting”. Interestingly, the 7th “day” of
has no “beginning” whatsoever, since Genesis
makes no such mention. After
all, how could the “day of rest” of the beginning-less and
Time-less God have a beginning or an end? It is the
pre-eternally existent “day” of God’s eternal state,
intended for mankind to
enter; it existed, prior to the emergence of mankind and all the
B. The difference between the 7th and the 8th Day
Let’s clarify this for a moment:
Let’s take the “week” as an example. The Israelites began it on the
1st day and “ended” it on the 7th, which was their Sabbath. They
didn’t work on that day, because it was observed as a form of God’s 7th Creative
“day” during which He had “rested from His works” and had
“sanctified it” (Exodus 20:8-11)
In the Christian era, we mainly have Sunday**
as our “day of rest” (because the Lord was resurrected on a Sunday),
thus acquiring the “value” of a salvific “day” (êáôÜðáõóç
) for man,
and because it also prefigured as the first “day” of the Age to
come. Thus, apart from being the first day of the week, Sunday is
also the “day of rest” for Christians - that is, a “Sabbatical” (for
resting)! But Sunday is simultaneously the day after
Sabbath/Saturday, as the culmination of the week – in other words,
the 8th “day”! This means that, depending on how
one counts, Sunday can be regarded as first day of the
week, a Sabbatical, or as the 8th day of the week; in fact, the
Bible itself mentions it as “one of the Sabbaths”. (Acts 20:7)
in Greek = ÊõñéáêÞ, meaning “of the Lord”; Lord = Êýñéïò in
Both the 7th and the 8th are NEVER-SETTING
“days”; that is, they are periods that do not have an end, the way
that the previous 6 material Creative “days” end.
And just as the 7th
“day” runs parallel to the 6th, so does
the 8th, upon embracing the final, General Resurrection of
all the Dead and inaugurating
the Age to come.
(see above "Timeline" with Parallels)
So, what is the difference between the 7th and the 8th
The difference is that the 7th “day” pertains to the
progression of man’s Spiritual perfection for as long as the 6th
Creative “day” of Deterioration lasts, whereas the 8th
will include the resurrected bodies of those who will have been
rendered incorruptible for the Age to come.
The 8th “day” therefore, is the state of the “complete”
man ("according to the likeness") and also of all material Creation
then rendered incorruptible for the Coming
Age, while the 7th “day” pertains solely to the state of
man’s Spiritual course towards the “likeness of”.
The fact that the 8th “day” (which identifies with the
“Age to come”), is an extension of the 7th “day” of
for Creation also, can be seen in passages like
“For it is impossible for those who were once illuminated and had
savoured the heavenly gift and had become partakers of the Holy
Spirit and savoured the good word of God and the powers of the Age
to come - should they fall again - to be renewed towards
repentance, as they will have crucified the Son of God and put Him
to shame...” (Hebrews 6: 4-6).
Obviously, if there are certain people already savouring the powers of
the FUTURE age from now, then this Future Age is not a foreign
or inaccessible feature: quite clearly, those powers CO-exist with
them, within the 7th “day of rest" of the saints,
inasmuch as they are the ones who have “crossed through” from the 6th
to the 7th Creative
“day” (where most of us are, who have not yet attained the 7th
-day's state of
The saints savouring the state of the 7th “day” already partake of those
powers - prior to enjoying the final incorruptibility of
their bodies and of Creation during the 8th “day”, as the
only the projection-extension of the 7th “day” which
will be embracing all of material Creation -
and not abolishing it.
The 6th Creative “day” as already mentioned, is the state
of CARNAL and CORRUPTIBLE material, which will eventually
have an end!
C. Linear and Crucial Time
This refers to the way that Time is perceived in God's Creative
plan; Time can be perceived in two different ways: 1. As Linear
time, and 2. (and more Christian) as Crucial time.
Linear Time is
the perception of events lined up in order - a fixed sequence of
events. According to Linear Time, after the first 6 Creative “days”
comes the 7th “day” (of êáôÜðáõóç),
from which Adam had “fallen”. But with this Linear logic
in mind, the 7th Creative “day” should likewise have an end,
with no sequel or continuance (since Time moves linearly); this
would logically make people set their sights “after” it, on the “age to come”
- on another, new, eternal “day” that
would replace the 7th – just as Sunday replaced the
Jewish Sabbath. This is the “day” that certain Fathers refer to as
the 8th, identifying it with the “day of the Lord”.
This perception is not incorrect. It is the customary perception of
Time, as we humans perceive it. But there is also another, more
accurate way of perception:
Crucial time (i.e.,
per the Crucifix). This is the most accurate –Christian– way of
perceiving the divine plan. According to this, events do not
necessarily move in linear fashion only, with the one following the
other; the Creative “days” can exist in parallel, and they can
alternate during the procession of human history. This is the most
fitting way to perceive the divine plan, not only because it flows
smoothly and seamlessly with God’s Time-less state, but also because
expiration of the 6th “day” is not a requirement for
acknowledging the existence of the 7th “day”; just as
an expiration of the 7th “day” is not a requirement for
acknowledging the commencement of an 8th “day”. Quite simply,
these two “days” can exist - in parallel. In other words, we don't
have a compulsory temporal succession here, given that,
within the 7th “day”,
created Time is “dissipated”, leaving only a “modal” succession: a
succession involving the manner that beings exist
So, how would we describe God’s Creative week, on the basis of the
Crucial perception of Time?
According to this perception, the never-setting, blessed 7th “day”
of the Lord is not something variable, in spite of our Linear perception
of Time. We find it very significant that in Genesis 2:4,
immediately after expounding all that pertains to the 7th “day”
(God’s êáôÜðáõóç), the
6 preceding “days” are then merged into one “day” – seeing how
Genesis 2:4 says: “This is the book of creation of heaven and
earth when they were created, on the day that God made
the earth and the heavens...”. Notice how Creation is
previously described with 6 “days”, which are then suddenly unified
and are regarded as one, uniform period, clearly separated from the
This is because the 7th “day” (like
the 8th) intersects (crosses through) the other creative days -
without replacing them - because it is a loftier kind of “Timeline”, which
is characteristically for the saints (=those who have attained the
state of the "likeness").
While all creations were originally living within Linear Time, Adam
had suddenly been "given a taste” of something superior. On receiving
the “breath” of the Holy Spirit (and attaining the
"likeness"), he was elevated to another kind of
Time: God’s êáôÜðáõóç
- the 7th "day". After
his disobedience, Adam "returned" to Linear Time, where people
continued to live "according to the image" only - until the Advent of the Lord Jesus Christ in
History, thanks to which Event, the door of God's êáôÜðáõóç was opened
This is beautifully showcased by Matthew at the beginning of his
Gospel. In verses 1:1-17, Matthew divides the names of the
forefathers of the Lord Jesus Christ into three groups of 14 names.
These three groups, however, consist of 6 heptads (sevenths), which
represent the six (Linear) Creative “weeks”, corresponding to the 6
Creative “days”. It was at the end of these 6 (Linear)
Creative “weeks” that the name of our Lord Jesus Christ appears: it
was the specific point in Linear Time that human nature was deified
(in the enfleshed Person of Jesus Christ) and was enabled to
be elevated into the 7th phase of God's êáôÜðáõóç.
From then on, “... blessed are the dead who have died in the
Lord. Yes, says the Spirit, so that they shall rest from
their labors, for their works follow along with them.”
(Revelation 14:13). These saved saints partake of the paradise from
which Adam had "fallen", back to Linear Time. And while for ordinary
people Time moves linearly, in a dimension “loftier” than Time, the
saints can also partake of God's Time-less “êáôÜðáõóç”.
This parallel “dimension” of Time can be seen in various statements
of the Holy Bible, such as the verse in Ephesians 1:4:
“ Blessed be the
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with
every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, in Christ,
as He chose us in Him, before the foundation of the world,
that we should be holy and blameless before Him in love” .
Saint Gregory Palamas says the same thing:
“Whose word was therefore, 'I shall give you respite'? But also 'I
shall give you rest, from the earth which God had cursed'?
Who, therefore, is the One who will give us rest from this
earth, unless it was the One who opened the heaven and led our
nature there, and had indicated with words and works the ascent to
heaven, by inviting us to it?
And if the Deluge was a type of that rest – but
only as a
excision and a final pausing of sin – there would have been no
comfort and rest for the sinners.”
(Saint Gregory Palamas, Homily 67:4)
So, bearing in mind that Linear Time is abolished when the
6th Creative “day” is terminated and replaced by the “Age to Come”,
and that the 7th “day”
also SPANS between the 6th and the 8th “days”,
obviously the only “day” that post-fall Adam could find
himself (along with all those who have not yet entered into God's
7th "day") is the 6th “day” of
which Creative “day” was Eve fashioned?
In order to comprehend the matter of the 6th and the 7th “days”, it
would be useful to take a look at an apparent paradox in Genesis.
How could Eve have been fashioned on the 7th “day” of God’s
êáôÜðáõóç, if God had already “paused” creating after the 6th
Á. The apparent paradox of Eve’s formation
If Eve was created within the
terrestrial Paradise of Eden when “detached” from Adam’s side, she
must have also been spiritually in parallel with the 7th
“day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç (which prevailed in Paradise, since
Adam and Eve were both “there”, walking the path towards the
“likeness of”). We have already mentioned that the 7th , never-setting
“day” is the “Age” of the Saints, during which they were
already living the “in-the-Holy-Spirit” life, being
transformed “from glory to glory”
(2 Cor. 3:18). As also mentioned, the 7th
never-setting “day” of God’s and the Saints’ êáôÜðáõóç is
a Linear continuation of the six Creative “days”, inasmuch as it
also “crosses over” or “intertwines” with - the 6th
the 7th “day” is the state of spiritual rest (êáôÜðáõóç) -
both for the souls of Saints who have departed from this world, as
well as the for the souls of the Saints who are still living among
us on earth;
the 7th “day” also embraces “Liturgical Time”: during
every Divine Liturgy that takes place in our material world of the 6th
Linear “day”, it is simultaneously mirrored in the 7th
“day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç, and is perceived by both God and
His Saints. This is evident in our Hymnology, when saying for
example, “Christ is born today...”, or “today He is
nailed upon the Cross...” which is not meant literally as today,
but is rather a statement that transcends Linear Time.
Should the soul of any Saint still living in this world fall from
the state of God’s êáôÜðáõóç through sinning, they too return
spiritually, back to the state of the 6th Creative “day”,
exactly as Adam and Eve had fallen through their disobedience, from
the 7th “day” (“according to the
likeness”) , back to the state of “according to the image", of the 6th
However we will notice here something that seems paradoxical,
when reading the following in Genesis:
“And the heavens and the earth and all of their adornment were
completed. And God completed on the sixth day His works that He had
made, and He ceased on the seventh day from all His works that He
had made. And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, for in
it, He had ceased from all His works, which God had begun to make.”
It says here
that God completed all of His Creative works at
the end of the 6th Creative “day”.
If we agree that Eve was created during the 7th “day”
(where Adam had been placed after receiving the breath of the Holy Spirit
and rendered "according to the likeness") and that God had
completed ALL His works during the 6th "day", how do we explain
God's fashioning Eve during the 7th "day"? Wasn't she also a
creation like the others?
Â. How is Eve linked to the 6th
and the 7th “days”?
Pursuant to the preceding analysis, we are now in a position to
perceive what the answer will be to the last question pertaining to
Given that the 6th and the 7th “days” run
parallel to each other, with the Linear 6th pertaining to
material Creation and the 7th pertaining to the spiritual
progress of saints (whether they are still living in the material,
6th “day” or as souls of the deceased in the 7th whose
souls are spiritually progressing towards the “likeness”), we have the following
sequence of events:
The fashioning of Eve pertains to her BIOLOGICAL creation; as such,
she too was created during the 6th “day” – as was Adam - as a
physical human being, “according to the image”.
This detail immediately clarifies the answer to “how did God
fashion her bodily from Adam’s side... in the 7th “day” of God’s
As already elaborated,
the 7th “day” pertains to the SPIRITUAL state of people’s
souls; Eve was fashioned bodily by God during the 6th
“day”, just like Adam before her, but when God breathed the Holy
Spirit into Adam, his spiritual self was placed in the state of the 7th
“day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç, from where he could have progressed
towards the “likeness”.
Eve was taken from Adam’s side physically during the 6th;
but, as Adam had been placed SPIRITUALLY in God’s parallel 7th
“day” before being given Eve as his helper, she was “automatically”
made present (spiritually) in the 7th “day”, to be with
This is how Eve partook of the 6th AND the 7th
“days” together with Adam (before their Fall): in the 6th
“day” as a material creation, “according to the image”, and in the 7th
“day” as a spiritual creation, “according to the likeness”.
While the first anthropological narrative in the first chapter of
Genesis pertains to God’s MATERIAL CREATION, the second
anthropological narrative in the second chapter of Genesis focuses
SPECIFICALLY on the 7th “day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç:
NOT on the material fashioning of the first-fashioned humans.
This of course in no way marrs the fact that Eve was “fashioned in
Paradise” within the 7th “day”, given that from the
commencement of her life, she too had the Holy Spirit as a creation
“according to the likeness”, having been “extracted” from the side
of Adam, who was already in the state of the “likeness”.
She had merely not experienced the conditions of the 6th
Creative “day” from the beginning of her life - like Adam and all of
fallen mankind thereafter...
When Adam and Eve “fell” (through their sinful disobedience) from
God’s êáôÜðáõóç, they had spiritually fallen from the
7th “day”, back to the 6th Creative “day” of
deterioration; this was the reason God made it clear to them that Eve
would thereafter give birth to her children with pains (like an
ordinary, physical woman), while Adam, after falling from the
loftier state of
êáôÜðáõóç that he had forfeited, would thereafter earn his
“bread” with the sweat of his brow, in a deteriorating world (along
with all of deteriorating, fallen mankind of the 6th
God had blessed the humans of the 6th Creative “day”,
however, He had a purpose when fashioning Eve, which included Eve as
part of that “day”. In His omniscient foresight, God knew that she
would fall and would also become a part of that deteriorating “day”;
He could foresee that both Adam and Eve would descend to the carnal
state from the spiritual state that they had been placed in.
Eve was created in an in-between state in Eden: between corruptible
and incorruptible, with a physical body belonging to God’s six
Creative “days”, but spiritually a “co-denizen” among the saints of
the 7th “day”, from the very first moment of her life. It
was only after her sinful disobedience to God’s instruction that she
ended up fallen - into the 6th material “day” –
but now in
The sainted one who is “according to the likeness” is not ONLY
“according to the likeness”, but ALSO “according to the image”. This
is why – despite their fall - Adam and Eve were also included in that
blessed 7th “day” state - for the sake of all the
humans in the 6th “day”; it is why their physical bodies
are included in God’s general Creation of the 6th “day”,
while their spirit is simultaneously the “spirit of adopted sons
of God” and belonging to the 7th “day” of the saints.
Genesis gives us all of the above seminally, mentioning only that
Eve was created in the Paradise of Eden, without clarifying
analytically whatever pertained to the formation of her body and her
spirit within God’s êáôÜðáõóç.
These details are left out, for those who thirst to penetrate
deeper into God’s Creation – for those who do not bypass details and
apparent contradictions – but for those who want to delve into the
Scriptures and look for the minutest detail.
Even for those who want to research the grandeurs of God, God
has provided them with all they need for answers that will satisfy
their hunger for truth, depending on their desire to be taught.
All the above categorically evidence and explain the parallels as
well as the intertwining between the 6th and the 7th
Adam as humanity’s Hypostatic Principal is linked to the 6th
This matter of Adam as humanity’s hypostatic principal has been
expounded in another article. We aim to further expand on this
matter now, the main question being:
Was Adam absent as the hypostatic principal from the 6th
Á. No such thing as a “bare” essence
As highlighted in the past, according to Orthodoxy, “essence that is
bare of hypostasis does not exist”.
Thus, when we speak of “God” we are not speaking of a bare
essence, but the hypostasis of the Father, Who is the “hypostatic
principal” of godhood.
In the same way, when we speak of “man”, we are not referring to the
“essence of mankind”, but to its hypostatic principal: the
hypostasis of Adam.
God does not “interact” with masses, but with persons. This is
because a relationship and love can only be developed between
persons. This is also
why, when speaking of “man”, the Holy Bible firstly and mainly
refers to Adam, as representative of the human race, and it is
through him that God sees all the other humans when referring to our
The Holy Bible says the following about Adam:
“She (Wisdom) safeguarded the first-fashioned - the only created -
father of the world, and delivered him from his own transgression"
(Wisdom of Solomon 10:1)
It makes clear here that Adam is the one who – as the
first-fashioned one – is the only father of the world; in other
words, the sole hypostatic principal of mankind.
Saint John of Damascus also says the following regarding Adam:
“It was also imperative that not only the first principal of our
nature (Adam) is to partake of the superior (God), but also every person who desires to be born through a second birth and be
nurtured with strange and suitable sustenance for his rebirth, and
thus reaching the measure of perfection.”
(Saint John the Damascene,
“Precise Edition of the Orthodox Faith”, ch.86: "On the holy and
immaculate Mysteries of the Lord").
The Saint refers to Adam’s hypostasis as the “principal” of human
nature, just as the “principal” of Godhood is the Father!
Adam was our Hypostatic Principal, as the representative of
mankind up until the time of Christ, Who (as the “second Adam”
according to the Holy bible) was then our Hypostatic Principal and the
model based on which we were fashioned, but also as the
Representative in the place of Adam, who had fallen from Grace!
Adam absent from the 6th Creative “day”?
pointed out in other articles, Adam was the
first one who was "hand-made" - fashioned by God - not only biologically, but spiritually
as well, by having received the Holy Spirit and rendered a
Spiritual person “according to the likeness”, and not only
“according to the image”.
Adam and Eve had both received the Holy Spirit with the “breath of
God” and had become “living souls” – which they had forfeited with their sin of disobedience and
had died (spiritually)
“on the “day” that they ate...” (Genesis 2:17) the forbidden fruit.
This is what expelled them from the state of “the likeness”
(=their active relationship with God and the course towards
deification-theosis), back to the simpler state of “the image”
(=back to the potential to strive towards the “likeness”).
Thus, the question is posed: In Genesis 1:26-28 - where God is
referring to the humans fashioned “according to the image” – was He
not including Adam (because Adam was also “according to the
likeness” and not only “according to the image”)?
Well, since God does not interact with masses but with
persons, He cannot be referring to any “bare essence”.
From the very beginning of his existence, Adam had been given
the Holy Spirit “within him”, through the breath of God, which is
why his existence was not confined to the humans of the 6th
“day”, since he was also a human of the 7th “day”
Given that God’s plan was to create man “according to the image"
AND "according to the likeness”, the hypostatic principal of
humankind can only be one who has both these characteristics, as a
complete person, and not one who is ONLY “according to the image”!
Consequently, as a creation that was made “according to the image”
AND “according to the likeness” – that is, the first human who had
entered the 7th “day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç – Adam was the hypostatic principal of mankind. He belonged
simultaneously in the 6th Creative “day” biologically, as
a person “according to the image”, but also in the 7th
“day”, as a person “according to the likeness”, thus simultaneously
representative of both these states.
A reminder of what
earlier, that the connection between the 6th and
the 7th “days” is NOT a successive one, but a PARALLEL
one, so that whenever any person who is created “in the image”
activates the Holy Spirit within him and embarks on the course for
“completion” towards the “likeness”, the 6th “day”
merely intersects with the 7th.
The human who is “according to the image” is created within
the 6th “day”, within what we are familiar with, i.e. “Time”; the human
Adam who is “according to the likeness” is co-created within the
Paradisiacal “day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç, which runs parallel to
the 6th “day”, along Linear-terrestrial “Time” and on the same
Adam belonged to the 6th “day” biologically as a creation
“according to the image” – as do other humans who have not received
the Holy Spirit – but he was also simultaneously in the 7th
“day”, in the state of “the likeness”.
This is why the Holy Bible says the following regarding Adam: “And
God planted a garden in Eden in the East and placed there the human
that He had fashioned” (Genesis 2:8). Therefore, since the Holy
Bible says that Adam “was placed” in the “garden” of Eden
(“Paradise”), the bible itself acknowledges both states in Adam:
“according to the image” outside the “garden of Paradise”, and
simultaneously “according to the likeness”, inside the 7th
“day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç.
The same applies to Eve:
biologically, she was a creation of the 6th “day”,
but spiritually, she was also a creation of the 7th !
However, AFTER HIS FALL (having forfeited the “likeness of” while in
the 7th), Adam found himself in the 6th
Creative “day”; as such, we now have the Hypostatic principal (Adam)
as a person, but only in his FALLEN state, so that by being fallen,
he also became the representative of that human state.
By forfeiting the eternal state of Paradise and the Saints, Adam
fell into the deteriorative, Linear Time that we are familiar with.
Thus, during the 6th Creative “day” when God had
pronounced “let Us make man”, this also included Adam – the
post-Fall Adam – who would eventually lose the “likeness” and be
left with the “image” – except that it would thereafter be a “soiled” one...
Consequently, this means we again do not have “bare essence” during
the 6th “day”, given that we have the FALLEN Adam as a
person in that state.
God is Time-less, beyond created Time; even before Adam was
fashioned in material form by Him, it doesn’t mean that Adam was
nonexistent. According to the Holy Bible, the Church is named,
“before the beginning of the world” (Ephesians 1:4), and God “calls
those who are not yet existent as existent” (Romans 4:17), simply
because they existed in His pre-eternal will.
If that were not possible because material Adam had not yet been
fashioned, then we must also reject the teaching of the Holy Bible,
that man was fashioned “according to the image of God” and “in the
image of the man Christ”, given that the man Christ had not yet come
in the flesh...
According to Saint Basil the Great, these are “states” and not
strictly temporal periods.
In the last segment of his second Homily on the Hexaemeron,
Scripture speaks to us of many ages, saying everywhere, "age of age,
and ages of ages," we do not see them enumerated as first, second,
and third. It follows that we are hereby shown not so much limits,
ends and succession of ages, but as distinctions between various states
and modes of action. "The day of the Lord," Scripture says, "is
great and very terrible," and elsewhere "Woe unto you that desire
the day of the Lord: to what end is it for you? The day of the Lord
is darkness and not light." A day of darkness for those who are
worthy of darkness. No; this day without evening, without succession
and without end is not unknown to Scripture, and it is the day that
the Psalmist calls the eighth day, because it is outside this time
of septads (sevens). Thus, whether you call it
day, or whether you call it eternity, you express the same idea.
Give this state the name of "day"; there are not several, but only
one. If you call it eternity still it is unique and not manifold.
Thus, it is in order that you may carry your thoughts forward towards
a future life that Scripture marks by the word "one" the day which
is the type of eternity, the firstfruits of days, the contemporary
of light, the holy Lord's day honoured by the Resurrection of our
Lord. And the evening and the morning were one day."
Saint Basil is therefore
saying that both the notion of “ages” and of the Genesis “days” are
conventional meanings that reveal “distinctions
and differences between states and varying things” and not
necessarily temporal successions and limits.
This denotes how Adam is representative of states, rather
than periods of time.
It is along this line that Adam was not “absent” from the 6th
Creative “day”, and that he is representative of both those who are “according
to the image” AND those who are “according to the likeness”, as the
Hypostatic Principle of mankind - given that he too partakes of the
human essence that we all have in common.
6. What Creative “day” are we in today?
“convention” pertaining to the two anthropological narrations of
As we have said, in Genesis we have two different anthropological
narrations – each of which is intended to highlight its own
The first narration is located in the first chapter, and the second
one in the second chapter of Genesis.
Thus, the first
anthropological narration (Genesis, ch.1) has, as its point of
reference, the 6th Creative “day” – where humans were
created “biologically”, i.e., “according to the image” - while the
second anthropological narration (Genesis, ch.2) has, as its point
of reference, the 7th “day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç,
i.e., the rendering of humans “according to the likeness”.
In the first chapter, the Creative “days” are the central theme,
during which God created the earth, animals, plants and man: in
short, MATERIAL Creation. This is why the first chapter only
pertains to humans being made “according to the image” and not
“according to the likeness” – which was in God’s original plan.
This is also why the chapter ends during the 6th
Creative “day” and does not hasten to also describe the 7th
“day” of êáôÜðáõóç/Paradise therein.
The second chapter however has a distinct difference: it pertains to
the SPIRITUAL progress (=progress in the Holy Spirit) of God’s
creation, with Adam as its “crown”.
It does not describe the “external” life, but rather the
“inner” life, within the 7th “day” of God’s
We are informed in there that the God-fashioned, material Adam
was then given the “breath” of the Holy Spirit, thus becoming
“according to the likeness”.
That God’s material creation is completed in the first chapter is
made evident by the words: “…and God saw everything that He had
made, and behold, they were very good. And it became evening and it
became morning, day six.” (Gen.1:31).
The word “evening” is the
key word which clearly denotes the end of a period - in this case,
the period of the 6th “day” of material creation, to be
followed by the 7th “day” – of spiritual creation,
“according to the likeness”.
Thus begins the second chapter, with the words that link it to the
precedent first “day”:
“And the sky and the earth and all of their adornment were
completed. And God
completed on the sixth day all of His works which He had made, and
He ceased on the seventh day from all His works which He had made.
And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it; for He had ceased
from all His works which He had begun to make.” (Gen.2:1-3).
It is obvious here that for Moses to have inserted the second
anthropological narration of the 7th “day”, it was
necessary to specify that the creation of the material cosmos had
previously been completed, and that during the pursuant “day”,
material creation was to be elevated to a superior level – to a
spiritual height. After
all, how could there have been a seventh “day”, if the works of the
sixth had not been completed?
We must especially note that - upon clearly stating the ending of
the 6th (material) period - Moses then focuses and
remarks exclusively on the events during the
pursuant 7th period – the “era” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç
and of the saints.
The fact that Adam and Eve eventually sinned and “fell” from the 7th
spiritual state, back to the 6th material-only state, is
something that Moses did not touch on – not in the first, nor even
in the second chapter of Genesis.
Their “fall” from the spiritual state was still a forthcoming
event. Thus, the 7th
“day” was strictly dedicated to spiritual creation, where
material creation (“according to the image”) is elevated to a
loftier status (“according to the likeness”), where even the animal
kingdom is transformed by the Grace of God; predators (beasts that
prey on other beasts) were gentle and at peace among themselves
In the state of "Paradise", there is no longer the need for a new
Creation; the pre-existing material creations are elevated to
something newer and superior.
THAT is the significance of the 7th “day”:
it is not about Creation, but about supra-Creation – the
“refining” of pre-existing, 6th “day” material Creation.
And as such, it is the reason Moses was not talking about about a
new, biological-material Creation; only its elevation to a
higher, blessed state of existence.
Moses then suddenly introduces the third chapter in Genesis, where
man chooses to fall away from that blessed state – from the
êáôÜðáõóç of God, from Paradise, from the blessed 7th
“day”, back to … where?
Of course Adam didn’t land in the 8th “day”, as this day
has not yet dawned and is the day of the Era to come, when Creation
is to be resurrected "bodily" and rendered incorruptible.
Neither did Adam remain in the 7th “day” of God’s
êáôÜðáõóç, given that God clearly told him “…with the sweat
of your brow you shall hereafter eat your bread”. So much for
êáôÜðáõóç – his final rest.
He had rendered himself “condemned” to toil thereafter for his needs
- in the 6th !
Fallen from the spiritual state (“according to the likeness”)
by forfeiting the gifts of the Holy Spirit, man again becomes
“carnal” – or “sensual” (Jude 19) - thus returning to the state of
the 6th (material-carnal) “day”...
But how can this possibly happen?
is mentioned as
Let’s take a look at an example of “returning” to a previous
“time/day” by comparing it to a familiar phenomenon in our
terrestrial, everyday experience - known as the International Date
This “dividing line” was considered a necessity (only as a point of
reference, without being a tangible-visible division) on account of
Earth’s spherical shape.
So, to likewise perceive the correlation between the 6th
and 7th “days” of Genesis, we should keep this example in
When someone resides on the one “side” of that International Date
Line and the day there is Friday (say "6th day”), then
for the one
residing on the other “side” of that “dividing line”, we know it is
Saturday (say "7th day"). This basically acknowledges them as two
entirely different days – even though they are immediately “next” to
each other – just like the proximity of the 6th and the 7th
“days”! What should
be stressed here is that an airplane crossing this “line” will
–within seconds find itself in another day!
So, given that this is an acknowledged phenomenon, it should not be
difficult to acknowledge the interchange between 6th and
7th “days” and how Adam and Eve were similarly
“transferred” from the 7th “day” back to the 6th…
Some may ask: ok, but
the International Date Line is merely a conventional line, which
serves a specific purpose. How does it relate to the 6th
and 7th “days” of Genesis?
Well, the answer is: IT
IS EXACTLY THE SAME KIND OF THING!
Who said that the reference to the Creative “days” in Genesis
is NOT a conventional one?
Is there anyone who believes that the Garden of Eden was in
another space-time or another planet or another universe, but not on
earth, where the rest of God-made Creation is?
On the earth that we all live on (in material form) – as well
as the saints who have earned God’s êáôÜðáõóç and are
savouring the benefits of the (spiritual) “Age to Come” while living
among us today?
Towards the end of his 2nd Homily “On the Hexaemeron”,
Saint Basil states the following, as to what the Creative “days”
"Even though Scripture presents us with ‘age of ages’ and ‘ages of
ages’, even so, none is enumerated as first, or second, or third
‘age’; rather, it reveals states and extents and succession of ages…
So that even if you say day or age, you will be saying the same in
therefore, was the ‘state’ referred to as ‘day’…”.
In his own words, Saint Basil is telling us that the mention
of “ages” and “days” in Genesis are
conventional terms that pertain to “states” and “extents” and “successions” –
and NOT temporal successions and extents.
So, if it is NOT about literal days and ages, but “states” of
things, then it was certainly possible for someone (Adam and Eve) - albeit in the
spiritual “state” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç - to “go back” to the
carnal-material-corruptible “state” of the 6th “day”,
even after having received the Holy Spirit - after the 7th
“day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç had been inaugurated; and the 6th
Creative “day” had been “completed” !
When the carnal - “according to the image” - Adam received the
“breath” of the Holy Spirit in him, he was the first being to be
"elevated" by God to “the likeness”, hence
completing God’s original designs for the human species.
Let’s take look at another, related convention in the Holy Bible –
this time not a “temporal” one, but a “topical” one.
Not only is the difference between sky and earth clearly mentioned
therein, but so is their contradistinction.
Most of us usually contradistinguish between earth and sky on
the basis of the distance that separates them. For example:
“For, just as the heavens are far away from the earth, thus far
away is My road from your
roads, and your thoughts from My thoughts”
So, according to the Holy Bible, there is an incomparable distance
between “sky” and “earth”, which is why it contradistinguishes them
as being far, far away from each other.
However, note what the Apostle says about the connection
between sky and earth:
“ But God, who is rich in mercy, […] even when we were dead in
trespasses, made us alive together with Christ […]
and made us sit together in the heavenly places in Christ
Jesus, that in the ages to come He might show the exceeding riches
of His grace…
In other words, Paul is saying - albeit living on earth when writing
the Epistle to his fellow-Christians and earthlings – that their God
has co-seated them with Christ…in the “heavens” !!!
So, what happened to that “incomparable distance between sky and
earth”? How could Paul
have been making such declarations while he was still on earth?
Where was the chasm between sky and earth?
It was simply because Paul – and the saints of the Church - albeit
living on earth (in the material world of the 6th
Creative “day”), are also
simultaneously living in the
SPIRITUAL (= “in the Spirit”) state, as co-denizens of the 7th
“day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç (Ephes.2:19).
Eve – who was created
bodily out of earthly material – had begun her life spiritually (=in
the Spirit), in Paradise, in the state of the 7th “day”
of God’s êáôÜðáõóç!
Here we have a topical convention, with the Creative “days”. What is
interesting to note here, is that in both Scriptural instances, we
are looking at exactly the same event, except in reverse:
Adam’s fall had “returned” him from the spiritual state of
the 7th “day”, back to the first, carnal, non-spiritual
state of the 6th “day”.
Reversely, after receiving the Holy Spirit, the terrestrial Apostle Paul
“rose” to that very state from which Adam had fallen: to the 7th
spiritual “day” – from earth, up to heaven!
The state, therefore, of one’s course towards the “likeness” is
regarded as the 7th “day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç,
whereas the state of fleshy or “sensual” people – of those “not
having Spirit” (Jude 19) - is regarded as the post-fall, 6th
again stress that these are STATES, which are conventionally
referred to, either as “earth” and “6th day” or
“heaven/sky” and “7th day”.
When Christ later introduced the Holy Spirit to mankind once again –
through Holy Baptism – man was once again enabled to enter the never-setting Light
of the 7th “day”:
“giving thanks to the Father who has enabled us to be
partakers of the portion of the saints in the light. He
has delivered us from the power of darkness and transferred us into
the kingdom of the Son of His love” (Colos.1:12-13).
the Pentecost and thereafter, each and every Christian who is
illuminated or God-sighting – whether still living on earth or
deceased – becomes a partaker of the 7th “day” of God’s
I heard a voice from heaven saying to me, “Write: ‘Blessed are the
dead who die in the Lord from now on.’ ”
“Yes,” says the Spirit, “so that they may rest from their
“For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of
God. For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear,
but you received the Spirit of adoption by whom we cry
out, “Abba, Father.” The Spirit Himself bears witness with our
spirit that we are children of God, and if children,
then heirs—heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we
suffer with Him, so that we may also be glorified together”
Thus, whether we say “earth” and “sky/heaven”, or “6th”
and “7th” day, these are conventional terms here, which
signify various states.
They signify the difference between the saints who are “in
the Spirit” and “according to the likeness”, and the “sensual”
humans created “according to the image”, who are “without the
Spirit” (Jude 19).
Every change from one state to the other is
to with spatial or temporal symbolisms.
D. Indications that we are in the 6th Creative “day”
All of us have been created by God, even though originating through
“The Spirit of God is what made me, and the breath of the Almighty
is what teaches me. […] You are composed of clay just as I am; both
of us are formed out of the same.” (Job 33:4-6)
If God had literally ceased making material creations during the 6th
“day” BEFORE we were born, then, either God had not created us, or,
we would not be creations. Therefore, since we ARE God’s creations,
and God ceases creating at the end of the 6th Creative
“day”, we are obviously still in that 6th “day” and God
is still creating.
is only in the Age to come that new people will no longer be born.
The Lord Jesus Christ Himself had said: “…My Father even until now
is working, and I too am working…”
Was Christ lying when He uttered those words, and had God
indeed ceased working, if the 6th “day” had actually
So, if the Lord was telling the truth, then we are still within the
Creative “days” and more specifically, in the 6th
and final Creative “day”:
on the “eve” of the Age to Come.
Given that man was created during the 6th Creative “day”
and not earlier, and, since the 7th “day” is the state of
the saints, then it stands to reason that the majority of mankind
today (with the exception of saints) is in the 6th
Creative “day”. A
reminder again, that although saints may be living alongside us
biologically in the 6th “day”, they are simultaneously in
the state of the 7th “day” of God’s êáôÜðáõóç , by
being “in the Spirit” according to Scripture.
Yet another reminder, that, if the characteristic of the 6th
Creative “day” is ONLY of those who are “according to the image”,
while “according to the likeness” exists as the state of ONLY those
who are in the 7th “day”, then those who have NOT (yet)
become “according to the likeness” cannot possibly be in the 7th
“day” – only the 6th – since the 8th and
pursuant, last “day” is destined for the Resurrection of
bodies and their eternal incorruptibility, and is the future and
final phase of God's plan.
Furthermore, since God’s fashioning all material creations belongs
to the 6th “day” and was declared “very good” but not
“perfected”, and, since we do not see any perfection around us, it
is not possible for us to be outside that 6th Creative
“day”, among all the other, not-yet-“perfected” creations.
5. Saint Epiphanios informs us that we are in the 6th
Beyond all the Scriptural and logical evidence presented here,
regarding our continuing presence in the 6th Creative
“day”, we also have Saint Epiphanios’ testimony on this subject.
Observe what Jesus Christ had said to Adam – through the mouth of
“Look at My feet that are pierced and nailed upon the wood, for the
sake of your feet which had wrongly hastened to the wood of
disobedience, on the sixth day when you made that decision – and
when I was planning your restoration and
the opening of Paradise…”
[By our Father among saints, Epiphanios, Bishop of Cyprus, Essay on
the burial of the Divine Body of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and on
Joseph of Arimathaea, and the Lord’s descent into Hades, along with
the salvific event that paradoxically took place.
According to Saint Epiphanios, it was during the state of the 6th, not
the 7th “day” that Adam had decided to disobey God’s
instruction and forfeit the state of the 7th "day's" (spiritual)
state - and it was also during the 6th "day" that Christ worked on
the restoration of man, with His incarnation, His teachings and
miracles, His personal, living example and supreme sacrifice for the
sake of His creations - thanks to which, He re-opened Paradise and
re-inaugurated the 7th "day" of God's
for the sainted ones.
So, if the 6th “day” had ended before Adam was created, how
could his disobedience have taken place on the 6th “day”?
Saint Epiphanios asks. Also, how was the Lord working for the
restoration of Adam, if the 6th “day” had finished?
6. Saint Irenaeus of Lyon also informs us that we are
still in the 6th
In his work describing the faith of a Gnostic group,
– who lived around the end of the 2nd century A.D., wrote
"And for this reason did Moses declare that man was formed on the
sixth day; and then, again, according to arrangement, it was on the
sixth day, which is the Preparation (=aka "Friday", eve of
Sabbath/'Saturday"), that the Last Man appeared, for
the regeneration of the first, Of this arrangement, both the
beginning and the end were formed at that sixth hour, at which He
was nailed to the tree."
Irenaeus, Book 1:14,
Even though it is the credo of an agnostic group, and the Saint
debunks all the beliefs of the Gnostics, when it came to this
specific excerpt, not only did he NOT debunk it, he expounded it
even more, as his own belief, in his 5th Book, as follows:
"Now in this same day that they did eat, in that also did they die.
But according to the cycle and progress of the days, after which one
is termed first, another second, and another third, if anybody seeks
diligently to learn upon what day out of the seven it was that Adam
died, he will find it by examining the dispensation of the Lord. For
by summing up in Himself the whole human race from the beginning to
the end, He has also summed up its death. From this it is clear that
the Lord suffered death, in obedience to His Father, upon that day
on which Adam died while he disobeyed God. Now he died on the same
day in which he did eat. For God said, "In that day on which ye
shall eat of it, ye shall die by death." The Lord, therefore,
recapitulating in Himself this day, underwent His sufferings upon
the day preceding the Sabbath, that is, the sixth day of the
creation, on which day man was created; thus granting him a second
creation by means of His passion, which is that [creation] out of
death. And there are some, again, who relegate the death of Adam to
the thousandth year; for since "a day of the Lord is as a thousand
years," he did not overstep the thousand years, but died within
them, thus bearing out the sentence of his sin. Whether, therefore,
with respect to disobedience, which is death; whether [we consider]
that, on account of that, they were delivered over to death, and
made debtors to it; whether with respect to [the fact that on] one
and the same day on which they ate they also died (for it is one day
of the creation); whether [we regard this point], that, with respect
to this cycle of days, they died on the day in which they did also
eat, that is, the day] of the preparation, which is termed "the pure
supper," that is, the sixth day of the feast, which the Lord also
exhibited when He suffered on that day; or whether [we reflect] that
he (Adam) did not overstep the thousand years, but died within their
limit,-it follows that, in regard to all these significations, God
is indeed true. For they died who tasted of the tree; and the
serpent is proved a liar and a murderer, as the Lord said of him:
"For he is a murderer from the beginning, and the truth is not in
(Saint Irenaeus, Book 5:23,2
It is abundantly clear, therefore, that - according to Saint
Irenaeus - Adam was fashioned and fell during the 6th "day", while
by the Crucifixional sacrifice of Jesus Christ he was also reborn
during the 6th "day".
Christ has risen, brethren, opening once again for the righteous the
gates of the Seventh, Never-setting day of the Saints - the state
Adam had forfeited through his disobedience, and condemned himself
to remain in the sixth day, of deterioration, sweat and thorns.
Let us strive to enter the 7th day - the Lord's day of ÊáôÜðáõóç
- for, "...from the days of John the Baptist, the Reign of God
is forcibly accessed, and forcers grab it." (Matth.11:12).
Our faith is not of future promises without realization ; it is an
ALREADY EXISTENT prospect of the eternal, never-setting Liturgical
Time, which the Illuminated ones and the Theumens (God-sighters)
already partake of, even during the present Age!
Reigning there, in the 7th "day", together with the Lord are
the three groups that the Evangelist John disclosed in his Book of
Revelations (20:4): the Living Saints, the ones who
slept in the Lord, and the holy Martyrs. They are the ones that he
referred to with the words: "...who from now on are resting
together with the Lord, and their works follow them" (Rev.14:13).
They are the ones who according to Paul "êáôÜðáõóç now awaits them":
"There remains therefore a
êáôÜðáõóç for the people of God. For
he who has entered His (God's)
êáôÜðáõóç has himself also ceased from his works as
God did from His.
therefore be diligent to enter that
êáôÜðáõóç , lest anyone fall according to the same
example of disobedience."
is already high time to rise from sleep;
for our salvation is nearer to us now than
when we first believed. The
night has moved on, and the day has approached; let us therefore cast
off the works of darkness, and let us don the armor of
us walk decently, as during the day: not
in revelry and drunkenness, not in beds and lust, not
in quarelling and envy. But don
the Lord Jesus Christ, and do not cater to the flesh by
fulfilling its desires." (Rom.
Parallels in Genesis and the Apocalypse
Translation : A.N.